There are various leaves that members of the military and their families are entitled to under both state and federal law. Maine law differs in a few ways from federal requirements, so it’s important to be up on the distinctions and all the laws at play. Here’s a helpful guide to protecting those who serve our country and their family members.
- Death or serious injury of military member: Under the Maine FMLA leave law and the federal FMLA, an employee can take leave for the death or serious health condition of a spouse, domestic partner, sibling, parent or child if the individual dies or incurs a serious health condition while on active duty with the National Guard or the United States Armed Forces.
- Under the Maine FMLA, these are the requirements:
- The employer has more than 15 employees;
- The employee has worked for the employer for at least 12 months; and
- The employee is entitled to take up to 10 weeks of leave in a two year period.
- Under the FMLA, these are the requirements:
- The employer has more than 50 employees;
- The employee has worked for the at least 1,250 hours; and
- The employee is entitled to take up to 12 weeks of leave in a two year period.
- Under the Maine FMLA, these are the requirements:
- Family military leave: In addition to leave an employee can take under Maine FMLA for the death or serious injury of a military family member, Maine law also allows for up to 15 days of family military leave if a spouse, domestic partner or child is called to military service where combat is expected to take place and the service is expected to last longer than 180 days. Click here to read the law. Here are some additional requirements:
- The employee must have worked at least 1,250 hours during the 12-month period immediately preceding the leave; and
- The employee must have worked at least 12 months for the employer.
- *The employee is NOT required to take the 15 days consecutively, but must take the leave during the 15-day period immediately preceding deployment, during deployment (if military leave is granted), or during the 15-day period immediately following your spouse’s, domestic partner’s or child’s return from service.
Family military leave is unpaid leave, but an employee may elect to use accrued paid time off or vacation time during any part of the leave. Additionally, an employer may require that an employee using this type of leave give “reasonable notice” of needing to take the 15 days. An employer can also require that the employee provide certification from the proper military authority verifying the need for leave or the military status of the covered service member.
- Military leave for employees called to duty for the National Guard or the Reserves: Under Maine law and federal law (the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (“USERRA”)) any member of the National Guard or the Reserves is entitled to a military leave of absence. Here’s what the law requires:
- The employer must provide (at no additional cost to the employee), the employee’s health, dental and life insurance benefits for at least the first 30 days of the military duty;
- After the expiration of the first 30 days of military leave, the employer must give the employee the option of continuing the health, dental and life insurance benefits in effect at the employee’s own expense by paying the insurance premium at the same rates as paid by the employer;
- An employee must give reasonable prior notice of needing this leave; and
- If the employer requires, the employee must also provide confirmation of their military duties.
Once an employee returns from duty, reinstatement rights depend on the length of military service. This link shows exactly what’s required.
- Reinstatement – USERRA: Under USERRA, members of the armed services and its reserve components who perform duties must be reinstated to employment without loss of status or benefits and without any break in service, as long as the employee meets all of the requirements under the Act. These requirements include:
- The employee provides notice as far in advance as is reasonable under the circumstances, including information about the approximate beginning and including dates of his/her service;
- The employee may take up to a total of 5 years of cumulative leave for military service during the time of employment, unless an allowed exception applies; and
- The employee meets the guidelines under USERRA for reapplying for work and returning to work after the leave.
There are some circumstances where the employer is not required to reemploy a person after military service, including the following:
- If the employer’s circumstances have so changed as to make such reemployment impossible or unreasonable (if, for example, a reduction in force occurred during the person’s absence that would have terminated that person’s employment);
- In the case of a person with a service-connected disability, if reemployment would impose an undue hardship on the employer;
- The employment from which the person leaves is for a brief, non-recurrent period and there is no reasonable expectation that such employment will continue indefinitely or for a significant period;
- Reasonable notice of the desire to return was not given, and the employer’s established policies are violated by failure to give reasonable notice; or
- The person’s separation from service was dishonorable, based on bad conduct, or “other than honorable” conduct.
Service members and their families are the backbone of our nation – and often – our workplaces. It’s important to get it right when it comes to protecting the rights of these employees. For more information, contact Skelton Taintor & Abbott.